Children in Toronto
The 2016 Census reported that 398,135 children (14 years and younger) live in the City of Toronto. While there has been a slight decrease in the child population since 2011, children still make up 15% of Toronto's total population. The table - Toronto's child population breaks down the child population by single years of age. 
When children are divided into five year groupings, the youngest children (those that are newborn to four years old) make up 34% of the child population, while five to nine year olds make up 34% of the child population and ten to fourteen year olds make up 33% of the child population.
The following chart shows how the number of children in each five year grouping has changed between 2011 and 2016.
- the population 4 years and younger decreased by 2,725 children
- 5 to 9 years olds increased by 6,970 children
- 10 to 14 years olds decreased by 5,180 children
Where do Toronto children live?
Children live in all parts of Toronto but some areas have a larger child population than others. The map - Where do children live in Toronto? shows how the 2016 child population is dispersed across Toronto's census tracts. Note: the map highlights only the residential portions of Toronto's census tracts since this is generally where families live. Non residential areas are made up of parks and industrial/commercial land.
Change in the child population
While the child population at the city level did not see a lot of change between the 2011 and 2016 Census, many communities saw significant change. The map - Change in Toronto's child population 2011 to 2016 shows how some local areas saw large increases while other areas experienced a decrease in the number of children.
In 2015, Public Health Ontario recorded 29,443 Toronto births. While many babies are being born, Toronto's birth rate of 10.4% (crude birth rate per 1,000 population) has been decreasing since 2007 when the birth rate was 12.1%. The chart below shows the change in Toronto births and the birth rate from 2007 to 2015.
Many international immigrants and internal migrants from other parts of Ontario and Canada are drawn to Toronto for the quality of life. Toronto is a multicultural city with a wide range of employment opportunities. It is generally considered a safe and clean city with good schools, services and amenities.
While Toronto's birth rate may not be increasing, the child population is still impacted by the arrival of newcomers families with young children. According to the 2011 Census, roughly 9% of Toronto children arrived in Canada between 2006 and 2011.
Toronto compared to the rest of the GTA (Greater Toronto Area)
The GTA is the most populous metropolitan area in Canada and it is made up of the regional municipalities of Durham, Peel, Halton, York and the City of Toronto.
In 2016, the Census counted 1,070,635 children (14 years and younger) in the GTA. Of these children:
- 37% live in the City of Toronto,
- 24% live in Peel Region,
- 18% live in York Region,
- 11% live in Durham Region and
- 10% live in Halton Region.
The chart below compares Toronto's child population to the other GTA regions.
Families in Toronto
There is no typical family in Toronto. A child's family may include siblings, one parent, two parents or guardians. Parents may be married, common-law, same-sex, step parent, grandparent or foster parent. Families have a range of diverse attributes including ethnicity, culture, ability/disability, creed or race.
In Toronto, approximately a third of all families have at least one child 12 years or younger. In total there are 229,900 families with children 12 years and younger. Seventy-five percent of these families are two-parent and 25% are lone-parent. 
Families with children 12 years and younger
In 2013, the median income of families with children 12 years and younger was $52,090 . This means that for half of Toronto's 229,990 families with young children, their family income is above $52,090 and for the other half of this population their income is below $52,090. The median income of families with young children was $10,520 less than the median of $62,610 for all Toronto families.
Twenty-three percent of children 12 years and younger live in a single parent family. Single parent families often face greater economic challenges since they are reliant on only one income. The chart below shows that in Toronto the 2013 average after-tax income of single parent families with young children was $34,530 which is significantly lower than couple families at $92,320.
Income of families with children 12 years and younger
||Median After tax income
||Average after tax income
Median Income: While the median income In 2013 for families with children 12 years and younger was $52,090, when grouped by census tract geography, the median family income ranges from a low of $26,610 to a high of $264,880. This is displayed on the map - Median Incomes of Toronto families with children 12 years and younger.
Average income: While the average income in 2013 for families with children 12 years and younger was $77,860, when grouped by census tract geography, the average family income ranges from a low of $29,830 to a high of $435,580. This is displayed on the map - Average incomes of Toronto families with children 12 years and younger.
When family incomes are compared to the basic expenses for a hypothetical young family of four at $65,870.55* , it is clear that many families are not able to afford the basics.
The following chart shows a count of families falling into each $20,000 income grouping.
Income levels, two parents versus single parents
Using the same income groupings, the chart below makes it clear that single parent families are more likely to have low incomes than two parent families.
Families receiving Social Assistance
In 2015, Toronto Employment and Social Services reported 21,585 families with 33,787 children (12 years and younger) were receiving social assistance . Seventy-seven percent of these families receiving social assistance are lone-parents.
The following chart shows the breakdown of the TESS caseload by family type. In 2015, the number of single parent families make up 27% of the total Social Services caseload.
Toronto's communities are difficult to define because they are constantly evolving as residents, businesses and services move in and out. Ask any Torontonian, and they will have a different definition of what they consider to be their community.
For government purposes, the City is divided into 44 wards, 140 neighbourhoods and 572 census tracts. Summarizing data at any one of these geographies can help to understand similarities and differences across Toronto.
Interactive map of services for children and families
A variety of services and programs are available to Toronto families that can help improve their well-being and quality of life.
Learn more about the services, programs and the unique characteristics of the child population in Toronto's local communities by using our interactive map. On the map you can add or remove the following information:
- Programs and Services including:
Census tract boundaries with details about:
- Child care centres
- Before / after school programs
- Child and family programs
- Public library branches
- Publicly funded elementary schools
Neighbourhood boundaries with details about:
City ward boundaries
- child population from the 2011 Census 
- average and median family income from the 2013 T1 Family File