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Individuals need to be supported to develop competencies related to equity. These can include learning about the root causes of inequities, understanding power, colonial systems, and the conditions that produce inequities. Skill building around leadership for social inclusion, practices of representation, recognizing the impact of their own social position and privilege, and analysing proposed actions for their potential to reduce inequities are also important individual competencies.


  1. Pauly, B., Shahram, S. Z., van Roode, T., Strosher, H.W., & MacDonald, M.(2018). Reorienting Health Systems Towards Health Equity: The Systems Health Equity Lens (SHEL). Victoria, BC: The Equity Lens in Public Health (ELPH) Research Project.
  2. Community Tools to Promote Health Equity. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24624.
  3. Raphael, D., & Brassolotto, J. (2015). Understanding action on the social determinants of health: a critical realist analysis of in-depth interviews with staff of nine Ontario public health units. BMC research notes, 8, 105. doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1064-5