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Social Locations – Indigenous

Equity Framework > Social Locations > Indigenous

The term “Indigenous” refers to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples. Indigenous peoples hold unique rights and history in Canada [1]. Indigenous identity is a determinant of well-being and the well-being of Indigenous peoples can only be understood in the context of the complex legacy of colonialism. This legacy is an ongoing process characterized by unequal power relations, and the extension of political, economic, and social control over Indigenous lands and lives. Working to advance the well-being of Indigenous children and families in Toronto requires strong, reciprocal partnerships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. These partnerships are based in the inherent rights of Indigenous peoples and the historic nation-to-nation relationship that continues to guide us in living together on the territory where Toronto now sits [1]. Despite over-all improvements in education and employment levels for urban Indigenous people in Toronto, a significant number of community members continue to experience poverty and the related challenges of inadequate housing, lack of secure access to food, and negative health outcomes often at rates that are much higher than the general population [2][3].


  1. Toronto Aboriginal Support Services Council, Understanding Indigenous Children’s Gifts of Toronto Final Report May 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2020 from
  2. The Toronto Child & Family Network (2016). Raising the village: Measuring the Well-being of children and Families in Toronto – Part 2 Indigenous Outcomes. Retrieved March 11, 2020 from :
  3. McCaskill, D., K. FitzMaurice, K. & Cidro, J. (2011). Toronto Aboriginal Research Project. Final Report. Toronto Aboriginal Support Services Council. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from